Capsules and Time-Released Capsules

Capsules are a plastic type feel to them, come in an array of colors. They are made from vegetable or animal sources. Sizes range from most small to uncomfortably big. The main reason for smaller pills is that the active ingredient can be better absorbed in smaller amounts over the course of the day vs. all at one time. Time release capsules have a harder shell. They are designed to bypass stomach acid so its ingredients may be released further down into the intestines. An example of this would be melatonin. Even some are probiotic formulas.

Tablets and Chewable Tablets   

Tablets may hold much more ingredients than a capsule. There is no “shell” controlling its input. Because of this, tablets are more suited for “one a day” consumption. The second side is that many more chemical ingredients must be added to give the tablet stable structure and its form. 

An uncoated tablet has a pretty rough texture and may be difficult to swallow for some. Coated tablets are usually smaller in size. They were come in a variety of colors, smooth on the throat with much easier to swallow. Chewable tablets come in a range of fruity flavors like chewable vitamin C. They are meant to accommodate those who may not swallow pills. By the way some chewable tablets use sugars and artificial flavouring, which may be a turn off for those looking for a cleaner option.


Liquid may not need to break down like a capsule or tablet would; therefore, is the easiest to absorb.

The downside to liquid vitamins is that they are usually more costly. And they do not last as long as their capsule counterparts. Soft gels include liquid suspensions. They are great for masking odor or a bad taste. It also provide protection from oxygen susceptible ingredients. Soft gels are animal based. It is very rare to find one that is vegan derived, although many more are slowly emerging to the market.


Gummies are by far the tastiest of vitamins. Carry the least amount of medicinal ingredients by dose. Great for those who may not swallow pills or may have weak teeth. Vitamin gummies for kids and our chewable vitamin C supplement are tasty, fun and easy for parents to administer with no kick back from picky children.

There are some differences between them.

1) Usage

One of the biggest differences between traditional supplements and gummies is how they are taken. For some people, swallowing large pills or capsules may be difficult. 

If that’s your experience, it does not mean you may not enjoy the benefits of dietary herbs and supplements. It just means you will need to find another way to take them. 

Gummies can be a great option for you as they are easy to swallow and chew. They are also perfect for kids because they are tasty and fun. 

And with 231 mg of Elderberry extract and concentrate per serving, they are ideal for helping your kids feel their best, day in and day out.

2) Flavor

Flavor is another key difference between gummies and such as capsules and pills. Because capsules and pills are meant to be swallowed whole, you probably will not taste anything when you take one. 

The delicious flavor of our Gaia Herbs Black Elderberry Adult Daily Gummies comes from real fruit, including Black Elderberry, Acai, Apple, Pomegranate and Goji.

Capsules, Gummies and pills are simply designed with different preferences in mind.

3) Serving Size

Traditional supplements are designed to pack enough herbs, vitamins and minerals into pill or capsule form to meet the recommended daily allowance for the average adult.

Gummies may be a different story. With many of the standard gummies found on the market, a single gummy does not contain enough nutrients to meet the recommended daily allowance.

That said, we recommend reading all labels carefully to make sure you are taking the right amount of gummies to experience the advantages.

4) Precautions

We have mentioned taking enough gummy supplements, but it is also important not to take. Because gummies are delicious, it may be all too easy for a child (or even an adult) to overdo it.  

5) Other Ingredients

Unfortunately, a lot of dietary supplements are full of added ingredients that you had probably rather not ingest day after day.

For example, some gummies can contain extras like:

  • Dairy
  • Gluten
  • Peanuts
  • Shellfish
  • Corn
  • Soy
  • Sugar
  • Tree nuts
  • Yeast

What is resveratrol?

Resveratrol or trans-resveratrol is a chemical with antioxidant properties. Over 70 plant species have detectable levels of it, with Japanese knotweed having the richest content. Scientists believe plants make it to protect themselves against natural radiation and pathogens.

What is resveratrol good for?

Animal studies and laboratory have suggested several resveratrol benefits. There are very few well-controlled human studies. And results have not been able to show clear-cut gains in survival and health, despite the changes in disease biomarkers. The list of potential resveratrol advantages includes:

  1. Lowering blood sugar levels and cholesterol
  2. Decreasing blood clotting
  3. Protecting the blood and heart vessels
  4. Treating and preventing cancer
  5. Preventing Alzheimer’s disease, Supporting memory and other dementias
  6. Reducing inflammation and pain

Most of the research is necessary before scientists may say for certain whether any of these resveratrol advantages are real or not.


There are companies that show resveratrol capsules in the market. How do you select the one that gives you the maximum benefits and right potency?

Look here when looking for a resveratrol supplement:


Most supplements have dosages between 250mg to 500mg, which are so much lower than what some studies have suggested being beneficial.

Well, that is what supplements are made for.


You would not take something into your body that you are not fully aware of, especially when it comes in small capsules. If you decide to take any other health supplement or resveratrol, you may be conscious. See the ingredients list and take note of what is in your resveratrol capsules.

  1. Look for trans resveratrol.

Resveratrol capsules can contain either cis resveratrol or trans resveratrol. What you need to take note of is the level of purity which varies from 5 percent to 75 percent.

The cost may be cheaper but you will not be getting any of the good stuff.

2. Say no to additives

Resveratrol is a natural substance so if you read anything in the supplement facts that don’t seem natural to you, do fast research. It is the best to be proactive than regretting taking the risk later on.


Of course, it is important to know where your resveratrol supplement is made. Look also for the seal that says it is laboratory tested to be sure of its potency and purity.


Even if you are not vegan, this standard means your capsule has no gelatin, which is an animal by-product. You would not even know if the cattle, where the gelatin in your capsule comes from, is safe and healthy from infection. It would put you at ease if your capsules are made from vegetable preservatives, cellulose, no gelatin or gluten.


And because of its energy-enhancing properties, you might have a hard time sleeping or better not take it at night.

Just a reminder, this is not advisable for lactating or pregnant mothers, individuals below 18 years old, and those with a known medical condition. Consult your doctor or physician first before using this supplement.


Resveratrol is commonly found in the skin of red grapes and in mulberries, cranberries and some deep-colored berries such as blueberrys. Muscadine grapes are contains the highest resveratrol concentration.

If you are a regular red wine drinker, you will be glad to know that it is also a great source of this powerful antioxidant just remember to drink in moderation. Other resveratrol sources include green tea leaves, cocoa or dark chocolate, Japanese knotweed, pistachio and peanuts.


It is important to note that while experts decide that it does have potential, there is still not enough data to confirm its effectiveness. Early research does suggest it may help protect you against:

Cancer: It may limit the spread of cancer cells and start killing them.

Diabetes: Resveratrol helps, in a condition in which the body becomes some sensitive to the blood sugar-lowering hormone insulin and to prevent insulin resistance. The condition can lead to diabetes.

Heart disease: It is thought to help lower LDL, reduce inflammation or “bad” cholesterol, and make it more difficult for clots to form that may lead to a heart attack.

Alzheimer’s: It can protect nerve cells from damage and fight the plaque buildup that can lead to the disease.

Researchers believe that resveratrol activates the SIRT1 gene. That gene is believed to protect the diseases of aging and the body against the effects of obesity.


Studies have not showed any severe ones, even when resveratrol is taken in large doses.

However, these supplements may interact with blood thinners like warfarin (Coumadin), and NSAID medications like aspirin and ibuprofen. That can raise your chance of bleeding.

As with other supplements, the FDA does not regulate resveratrol. That makes it difficult for consumers to know exactly what they are getting or whether the product is effective. There also is not any specific dosage recommendation, and how much you should take may vary from supplement to supplement.

The dosages in most resveratrol supplements are typically much less than the amounts that have been shown beneficial in research. Most supplements contain 250 to 500 milligrams.

Vitamin A

The upper tolerable limit for old aged person is 10,000 IU for Vitamin A. You can get it from dairy products, animal foods and fish. Also, beta-carotene (from yellow and orange veggies) gets converted to vitamin A in the body. “But the body is fully enough that it doesn’t convert all that to vitamin A,” said by Rosenbloom.

If you are already taking a multivitamin that contains 5,000 Integrational Unit, getting A-fortified foods in your diet and eating foods that contain vitamin A, you are probably OK.

Vitamin B3 (niacin)

The maximum limit for old age is 35 mg per day.

Vitamin B-6

Vitamin B-6is a water-soluble vitamin. It means you just pee out the excess. People have problems with temporary nerve damage. They lose feeling in their feet and hands.

Vitamin B9 (folate)

Taking too much vitamin B9 can lead to behaviour changes, abdominal cramps, sleep disorders, irritability, digestive issues, seizures, confusion, nausea, skin reactions and more. Rich intakes of folic acid can also mask a vitamin B12 deficiency. The maximum limit for old age is 1,000 mcg per day.

Vitamin C

People at risk for kidney stones may increase the risk; people also may get diarrhea. Most of people have food poisoning who had taken too much vitamin C. People are not aware how potent these vitamin supplements are.”

Vitamin D

The risk is that we get too much, which may actually cause calcium to reach out of your bones.” Vitamin D is found in some orange juice products, some calcium supplements are fortified with vitamin D. If you are somebody who may not drink dairy, getting vitamin-fortified orange juice makes sense. If you do drink dairy, then you take a supplement. It is that layering that I get concerned about, she says.

Vitamin E

People focus on vitamin E to prevent macular degeneration, Alzheimer’s, cancer, heart disease “the list goes on,” says Blumberg. The upper tolerable level is 1,000 milligrams; the RDA is 30 IU”. It didn’t have any adverse effects. In another study, people took 800 internationals units for six years, with no adverse effects, he says.

Possible side effects of multivitamins

Possible side effects of multivitamins are as like below:

A good diet is the best way to obtain these nutrients.

Most of the side effects are more common than others.

Common side effects

Certain side effects are more likely to occur than others when you are taking multivitamins. These include:

  1. diarrhea
  2. constipation
  3. upset stomach
  4. nausea

These gut-related side effects are generally temporary and minor.

Rare side effects

Rare side effects of multivitamins include:

  1. gout
  2. headaches
  3. nosebleeds
  4. insomnia

Other factors that can cause multivitamin side effects

Multivitamins can also become contaminated with harmful compounds, such as lead or arsenic.

When you ingest these harmful compounds in large amounts or over a longer period of time, they can cause a variety of health issues, including neurological, physical and muscular problems, as well as birth defects.

It is impossible to identify whether multivitamin contains these harmful compounds by looking at its label alone.

However, some manufacturers opt to get their supplements verified by third-party labs, which may confirm whether they are free of contaminants and that they truly contain what the label states.

Some examples of independent supplement testing companies include ConsumerLab and U.S. Pharmacopeia and NSF International.

Side effects in infants and children

Side effects in children are similar to those that older age may experience. However, children are likely to experience them at much lower doses than older age.

In other words, children who take multivitamins may have a higher risk of consuming extremely high levels of nutrients, which may lead to nutrient overdoses and even death in severe cases.

Companies market many multivitamins specifically for children and infants.


Pay attention to food labels, says by Rosenbloom. If you see 100% of RDA, you can not need a multivitamin supplement.

For a small fee, a nutritionist may evaluate your diet for deficiencies. Also, some online programs may provide the same service.

Blumberg’s prudent advice: “Take a multivitamin. Take a calcium supplement, if you do not drink much milk. If you are taking medicine that interferes with nutrient absorption, if you are an older person whose calorie intake is low, if you are an athlete.

We have decided to purchase vitamins, regularly follow the daily recommended dose to avoid excessive intake. Before purchasing it is recommended that you consult a nutritionist or physician to receive an assessment.

An overdose of vitamins K, A, E, D may cause serious or life-threatening side effects

Research gives that the average American diet just isn’t cutting it.

While increasing consumption of certain foods in our diet can help with this, multivitamins are another way to help ensure you are getting the proper nutrients.

So if you are considering a multivitamin, check with your doctor first.

Most of the Americans are not meeting the recommended daily intake for whole-grains, fruits and vegetables.

Many women lack iron, calcium, dietary fiber, potassium, chorine, magnesium and vitamins A, C, D and E in their diets according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

But not all multivitamins are created equal.

  1. Made of raw materials
  2. Non-GMO, organic
  3. Free of heavy metals, chemicals, and coloring
  4. Have certifications from NSF International, the Dietary Supplement Verification Program, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP), or another reputable third party.
  5. Allergen- and gluten-free

Vitamins are like below :

  • Life Extension Two-Per-Day Multivitamin

Life Extension claims to include only dosages and nutrients check by science to be effective.

  • The Vitamin Shoppe Ultimate Women Gold Multivitamins

Vitamin D is being studied as a cardiovascular, reproductive system health. Store in a dry, cool place. Keep out of reach of children.

  • Ritual Women’s Multivitamin

The makers are serious about the quality of their product and very transparent about how and where they source their material.
The Essential for Women vitamin is 100% vegan. It is combination of nine important ingredients: boron, folate, magnesium, omega-3, B12, D3, iron and K2. The inclusions of omega-3s, which may help regulate inflammation. It reduces blood clotting.

  •  Saz Products Whole Food Multivitamin

Saz’s vitamin is digestive enzymes not only help with general digestion, they also aid the absorption of the nutrients. They are sourced from raw foods. Klaire Labs Prenatal & Nursing Formula.

  •  Metagenics PhytoMulti Capsules

They may aid in boosting memory, fighting free radicals and reducing inflammation. You may get the PhytoMulti with iron or without depending on your needs. First take one to three capsules once daily with food or as adviced by your healthcare practitioner. Metagenics PhytoMulti Capsules are non-GMO and gluten free.

  •  Full Circle Prenatal Multivitamin

Full Circle Prenatal Multivitamin brand was created by a registered dietician. It contains vitamin B, choline, vitamin D and Iodine.

Most of prenatals contain less than the recommended levels of iodine. Full Circle Prenatal contains 250mcg of iodine which is in line with the American Thyroid Association’s and World Health Organization recommendations for iodine supplementation during pregnancy. The experts behind Full Circle Prenatal know the use of providing active forms of B vitamins, particularly folate and vitamins. You also may know that too many methylated B vitamins may cause other side effects and anxiety in some patients. The Full Circle Prenatal expertly combines adenosylcobalamin, methylcobalamin and methyltetrahydrofolate with calcium folinate (folinic acid) to provide enough active B vitamins while reducing side effects that affect patient compliance. 

Vitamin D plays a critical role in fertility, preventing pregnancy complications, fetal development and Full Circle Prenatal contains 4,000 IU’s of this critical nutrient.

Wagner CL., Hulsey TC, Hollis BW, Johnson D, Ebeling M, Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: Double-blind, randomized clinical trial of effectiveness and safety. J Bone Miner.

  •  Supplements Studio Whole Food Multivitamin Plus

Multivitamin contains the essentials as well as a probiotic blend/digestive enzyme. They use raw, gluten free ingredients, non-GMO to make their vitamins. It is composition of nutrients it claims to have on the label. It provides 100% daily requirements to the men’s and women. Whole food multivitamin made with vegetables and organic fruits. Third party tested 100% satisfaction guarantee.      

  •  Best for 50+: Rainbow Light Active old age 50+ Multivitamin

This multivitamin gives energy like whole foods, a main advantage says Hayim. It contains ingredients like spinach juices, organic spirulina super food, concentrated kale and beet all to help increase nutrient absorption and energy. It is food-based multivitamin. It protects brain, heart, bone, eye and immune health. It provides anti-aging defense and boosts energy levels. It is easy to digest with probiotics and enzymes. Rainbow Light Active multivitamin is iron and gluten free. It gentles on stomach.

  • Runner-Up, Best for 50+: Gaia Herbs Women’s Balance Capsules

Gaia is a recognizable (and with good reason) brand. Gaia has been using herbs and quality plants over a decade. It helps maintain a healthy hormone balance and also provides traditionally for relief of occasional hot flashes. Gaia contains a blend of St. John’s Wort, Vitex and Black Cohosh.

  1. Best Personalized: Vous Vitamin Personalized Vitamins

If we are having trouble finding a vitamin that’s tailor-made to fit your needs exactly and It look to one you may customize to your liking like this option developed by doctors. All we have to do is take a short quiz on the brand’s website. It also answers questions about your overall lifestyle, health and diet.


It is both non-GMO Project Verified and USDA Organic. The Ritual Essential for Women earns our vote for the best vegan option (and has the added advantage of being delivered to your door via a convenient subscription model). For the best option, the Swisse Ultivite Daily Multivitamin for Women is filled with 50 essential nutrients.

One glass of Milk has always been counted healthy. Mothers have depended on milk to give nourishment to their children. Milk has been considered as the whole food because It provides energy from carbohydrates and fats. It gives the required proteins for muscle building, and aiding in vital functions of the body with minerals and vitamins.

Milk is combination of soluble vitamins, like vitamins D and A, and is a great source of minerals, like magnesium, calcium and potassium. Also milk is able to retain most of its minerals; it loses some amount of vitamins during the processing phase and supply chain due to heat and light exposure.

During this processing the milk fat is adjusted, based on client’s preferences, to 1.5%, 3% and 4.5% its original combination of 6-7% fat of milk. Vitamins also get reduced to a half or quarter of its original combination– as the vitamins are fat soluble. Vitamin D comes down to almost zero amounts or is not detectable in unfortified milk. Fortified milk, without altering the flavor, taste and color, is able to provide 11-15 % of the needed RDA of vitamins A and D, on an average consumption of 200 ml in one glass of milk.

Today, 176 lakh litres of milk is getting fortified all over 26 states of India, with private dairies and cooperatives fortifying their standardized, skimmed, toned, double toned milk. This constitutes 44 % of the total fortifiable milk in India.

Fortified milk can be easily decided as all its packets carry a +F logo in blue for easy identification. The fortification is done as per the specifications and standards provided by FSSAI, which in turn, is monitored by a panel of eminent scientists from leading organizations of India like CFTRI, NIN-ICMR, HBTI, NIFTEM, and AIIMS.

In times of Covid-19, it is important that we also focus on prevent any kind of infection or illness and developing immunity due to any kind of virus. Both vitamins D and A have known functionalities to increase the immune system for protection against illness. It is important that the right levels of vitamins are managed in the body. A recently published study in Indonesia indicated the correlation between insufficiency of vitamin D and Covid-19 mortality. Vitamins D and A deficiency is a growing public health concern.

When milk is processed, there is some depletion of fat-soluble vitamins in the milk. Recently survey by the National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB) and a report by the Indian Council of Medical Research, back in 2012 show that India has a very highest burden of Vitamin D and A deficiencies, among both adults and young children, particularly in urban areas. These are areas where people have very limited exposure to sunlight and are physically less active. Milk is composition of all population groups, and hence, fortification of milk with certain micronutrients is a good strategy to address micronutrient malnutrition.

Difference between Fortified and Unfortified milk:

Fortified 2% milkUnfortified 2% milk
Protein8 grams8 grams
Fat5 grams5 grams
Carbs12 grams12 grams
Vitamin A15% of the Daily Value (DV)8% of the DV
Vitamin B1254% of the DV54% of the DV
Vitamin D15% of the DV0% of the DV
Riboflavin35% of the DV35% of the DV
Zinc11% of the DV11% of the DV
Phosphorus18% of the DV18% of the DV
Selenium11% of the DV11% of the DV
Calcium23% of the DV23% of the DV

It is an important nutrient-rich coating of milk fats get from milk. It helps to build immune cells and activating them, also add protection against diseases. MFGM may be consumed from many milk formulas.

The Tata Trusts made collaboration with the World Bank and the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) for the ‘Milk Fortification Project’. The Trusts part in this collaborative partnership is as follows:

  1. Financial and technical support to private and cooperative dairies in India for the milk fortification project.
  2. Technical assistance to the dairies for endorsement and labeling support.
  3. Quality control protocols and development of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for the fortification of milk.
  4. Deciding implementation of quality assurance and quality control measures protocols for fortified milk samples collected from dairies.
  5. Capacity building and training of dairy staff and/or manpower of the external implementing agency.
  6. Supporting awareness and communication campaigns to improve demand among consumers.
  7. Supporting the government in implementing the Fortified Gift Milk scheme for school children.

The organized milk sector is growing at a rate of 15% every year. The contribution of milk cooperatives to the fortifiable milk quantity is approximately 220 Lakh Litres per Day (LLPD), while the private sector gives approximately 196 LLPD.

Milk-based products have additional protein, calcium or other components such as omega-3s. Claims with terms such as “more,” “plus,” “fortified,” “enriched,” “added,” and “extra” are relative claims that may be used to describe the level of vitamins, protein and minerals or dietary fiber in an individual food. Foods using these claims must contain at least 10% more of the daily value of the nutrient per reference amount than is found in a perfect comparison food.

Essential nutrients offers people a runway to good health and nutrition. It makes sense for brands making a fortified, nutritious beverage to start with something already high nutrient such as milk. Anything beyond what’s already in is a bonus and may help people with specific needs meet those needs. 

The disease caused by vitamin D deficiency that weakens and softens the bones. It was rampant at the time among poor children, mainly in northern U.S. cities. Food fortification was proven an effective tool for nutritional deficiencies among population. But recently, the most reasonable approach is to use food fortification as a mean to support but not replace dietary improvement strategies

Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) current pandemic has affected many countries overall worldwide. When treatment strategies are not yet successful and vaccines are not available, vitamins are the best choice to protect against this viral infection.

Vitamins C and B delivered maximum energy scores against both targets and vitamin D displayed a binding energy score. The effectiveness of all three vitamins is higher than the binding energy score. Although the potential beneficial effects of vitamin C and B are revealed through studies, further clinical trials are required for the validation of these results.

The current COVID-19 pandemic is teaching significant adjustment for everyone.

We give an overview of the different agents that may have a role in the treatment or prevention of COVID-19 based on a review of the most current literature. It is important to note, however, that no clinical studies with supplements and vitamins have been completed in humans that are specific to COVID-19.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D have main role in immune functioning. VDR and Vitamin D have a suppressive effect on anti-inflammatory and autoimmunity effects on immune cells.

Vitamin D reduces the risk of acute respiratory infections among all patients, especially in those with deficient levels of vitamin D.


The antiviral activities of zinc have made its ionospheres candidates and mineral against COVID-19. Zinc is essential for the integrity of the immune system, with an important role in the development, activation and maintenance of cells during adaptive and innate immune responses. It also plays a main role in the integrity of barriers, which are essential for organism prevention and defense of pathogen entry. Zinc can modulate the activity and development of T cells, hence characterized by high levels of pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines. It can lead to immune response impairment, resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or in multiple organ failure. Zinc deficiency decreases the activity of cytolytic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells both of which are involved in the destruction of tumor cells, viruses and bacteria.

Zinc is also useful in direct antiviral activity, which makes it essential for the immune response upon viral infection. Increased intracellular concentration of this mineral can reduce the replication of a variety of RNA viruses and interfere with the viral proteolysis processing of polyproteins. Zinc deficiency affects approximately one-third of the population worldwide and is affecting population groups in both developed and developing countries or also considered a global nutritional problem. It is also considered one of the main causes of morbidity in developing countries and it is estimated that 0.5 million women and children die per year in these countries due to zinc deficiency. Worldwide, about 16% of lower respiratory tract infections occur due to zinc deficiency, suggesting a possible link between this nutritional deficiency and severe disease progression and the increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C protects damage to bimolecular resulting from exposure to oxidants generated by normal metabolism. It exposes to toxins and pollutants. Vitamin C is a cofactor of several that are involved in the stabilization of the collagen tertiary structure. It is important for the occurrence of events.

Vitamin C levels in the body can change due to environmental conditions like air pollution and the presence of pathologies such as type 2 diabetes. The elderly population is particularly affected by vitamin C deficiency because chronic or acute diseases are prevalent in this group, and aging is related to reduce vitamin C levels. For example, low levels of vitamin C in a population of British elderly individuals were associated with all causes including cardiovascular causes. In addition, older age and low vitamin C levels appeared to be co-dependent risk factors for mortality and suggesting that serum vitamin C levels contributed to the significance of age as a predictor of mortality.

Omega-3 fatty acids

Omega-3 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids. It includes docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic fatty acids. It has well known effects on immunity and inflammation. Decision by the European Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition expert statement, the use of omega-3 fatty acids can improve oxygenation in COVID-19 patients. Others however have suggested caution in the use of the omega-3 s in COVID-19 patients, citing evidence showing a counter-intuitive increase in inflammation and oxidative stress due to increased susceptibility of cellular membranes to damage.

Vitamin E and Selenium

The anti-oxidant Vitamin E and selenium are major components of anti-oxidants. Epidemiological studies demonstrate that deficiencies in either of these nutrients alters viral pathogenicity and immune responses. It has been noted, that there is a correlation between COVID-19 cure rates and geographic selenium levels in different Chinese provinces. Selenium and Vitamin E both act through anti-oxidant pathways to increase IL-2 cytokine secretion, increase the number of T cells and enhance mitogenic lymphocyte responses. It also enhances NK cell activity and decreases the risk of infection. Vitamin E and Selenium supplementation has also been shown to increase resistance to respiratory infections.

Adequate levels of vitamins C, E and D are crucial during COVID-19 to reduce symptom burden and lessen the duration of respiratory infection. It may improve immune responses and suppress viral replication. Therefore, the consumption of adequate amounts of minerals and vitamins through diet is essential to ensure the proper functioning of the immune system. Vegetables, fruits, fish, meat, fish, poultry and dairy products are good source of these vitamins and minerals. To support immune function during COVID-19 disease higher dietary intakes of vitamins C, D and E, zinc and omega-3 fatty acids could be beneficial.

Conclusion and future prospects

The effects of vitamins C, D, E, zinc, selenium and omega-3 fatty acids positively affect the immune system are shown above. Also the possible benefits to those suffering from COVID-19 are presented. Supplementation of higher dosage of vitamins D, zinc and C may have a positive effect during COVID-19 infection. However, clinical trials based on the associations of COVID-19 and diet are lacking. Some clinical studies have been registered and are currently being conducted to decide the effectiveness of certain nutrients in patients with COVID-19. Hopefully, the results of these trials will clear the use of micronutrients during SARS-CoV-2 infection. It is also important to investigate other important micronutrients such as vitamin B in COVID-19, to further see the role of nutrition in disease outcomes.

Healthy behaviors and living and towards health are rapidly changing. As new trends information and emerge about various illnesses is shared via more channels than ever before, it is important for brands and companies to understand client’s habits and perceptions when it comes to their health.

With the survey´s results provide clients insight into every day or long-term health attitudes and behaviors in areas such as health nutrition, packaged food and consumer sports.

Vitamins and Supplements Driving Beauty Innovation

Rapidly changing large amounts of easily available information and health on nutrition and health is blurring the lines of what types of products consumers are using to manage their health. For example, consumers who before depends on traditional beauty products to manage their appearance are diverted at vitamins and supplements to encourage their appearance as part of their overall well-being.

As consumers are shifting their mind towards companies, healthcare and brands need to ensure that they are looking at their services and products with the same view. Therefore, it is important that companies and brands look beyond their emergence competitors and product categories as disruption within nutrition and health continues.

Consumers have rapidly looked at their appearance as an indicator of health. By the definition of health has been changing over the years, with more emphasis being placed on feeling “good”, getting enough sleep, mental well-being and 54% feels that beauty means looking healthy and 47% of global consumer believes that being healthy means having a healthy appearance.

Multivitamins, green tea extract and vitamin E are the mostly consumed vitamins and supplements for beauty and skin health purposes. Though some of these vitamins and supplements have been added in beauty and personal care products for many years, the format of how consumers are using it has been changed. These products not only include standard pills and capsules found within supplements categories and vitamins but also powders to add to oral sprays, ready-to-drink products and meals or shakes.

The planning that consumer are consuming vitamins and supplement is not the only thing that is changing, but how they get their information and make purchasing decisions is shifting as well. Many consumers still get information from traditional sources such as family/friends, doctors and pharmacists. However, many are looking at alternative information sources with global consumers depending on social media, healthcare related fitness trainers or coaches and websites to give them healthcare information and advice on which vitamins and supplements to consume.

Companies and Brands need to understand the overall information about health and nutrition for their consumers instead of focusing on their specific categories, as they need to be part of the wider lifestyle habits and choices consumers have when it comes to their health.

Consumers’ perspective of health

  1. Feeling ‘good’
  2. Eating a balanced diet
  3. Drinking enough water
  4. Mental wellbeing
  5. Absence of disease
  6. Low stress
  7. Avoiding Alcohol
  8. Maintaining Healthy Weight
  9. Physical Strength

Consumers’ perspective of beauty

Being comfortable in your own skin

  1. Looking presentable
  2. Inner self confidence
  3. Embracing yourself
  4. Simplicity
  5. Looking Healthy
  6. Honesty
  7. Hygiene/cleanliness
  8. Embracing yourself

Consumers may realize that health isn’t about what foods they eat but also what supplements they take and what products they apply. That’s why food-related marketing terms like plant-derived, non-GMO, natural and organic are rapidly in-demand when it comes to skin health products. Women are considered as the main consumers in the skin health nutraceutical category.

It has been proven to reduce the appearance of fine lines and work from the inside-out to increase the elasticity and moisture of skin.

Similarly, supplement formulators are taking skin health into account when they’re developing products for other categories.

Regional Insights

Increasing prevalence of chronic diseases like Diabetes and Cancer, rising disposable income, rising digestive tract diseases, and growing consumer awareness about nutritional products is propelling the regional product demand. Increasing demand of a healthy diet to maintain fitness levels is also boosting the demand for health supplements and women’s beauty.

Start up countries like China, India, Japan, Singapore and Australia to educate and create awareness to women regarding nutrition is also boosting the growth of the Asia Pacific market.

Africa and Middle East is the fastest-growing segment over the forecast period. Increasing number of gyms, concerns related to lifestyle diseases and growing millennial population and is likely to boost the regional supplements market. Increasing focus of government regarding creating health awareness is to drive the dietary supplements market in the near future. For instance, in 2018, an initiative known as the National Happiness and Positivity program is introduced by government which goals to provide right information to public employees to help them building a work environment and adopt healthy habits that supports the best healthy lifestyle.

Key Companies that invest their savings in health related businesses…

Geographic expansions, increasing investments in R&D, collaborations with other industry players, product and flavor differentiation, mergers and acquisitions are among the key strategies adopted by the market players for meeting a competitive edge. In December 2018, Pfizer, Inc. signed an agreement with GlaxoSmithKline plc (GSK) to combine their consumer health business into a new joint business, with combined sales of about 12.7 USD billion. The joint business was expected to be pain relief, a category leader in respiratory, digestive health, skin health, vitamin and mineral supplements, therapeutic oral health. Some of the companies plays the main role in the women health & beauty supplements markets are:

  • The Nature’s Bounty Co
  • Herb life International of America Inc.
  • GNC Holdings Inc.
  • Garden of Life (Nestle)
  • Bayer AG1
  • Taisho Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd.
  • Suntory Holdings Limited
  • Pharmavite LLC
  • Blackmores
  • Swisse Wellness Pty. Ltd.
  • Pfizer Inc.
  • Fancl Corporation
  • Asahi Group Holdings
  • Grape King Bio Ltd.
  • Usana Health Sciences
  • By Health Co. Ltd
  • Nu Skin Enterprises
  • Revital Ltd.
  • The Himalaya Drug Company
  • Vita Life Sciences
  • Standard Foods Corporation

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is a water-soluble nutrient that cannot be synthesized by humans. Vitamin C acts as an anti-oxidant that can scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), thereby protecting bimolecular such as lipids, proteins nucleotides from oxidative dysfunction and damage. During Covid-19 infection, vitamin C that is present in leukocytes is speedily utilized. Balance between antioxidant defenses and oxidant generation can alter multiple signaling pathways It can also involves pro-inflammatory transcription factors, such as nuclear factor кB (NF-кB). Nuclear Factor-кB is involved in inflammatory responses, the pathogenesis of certain viral infection and diseases. Inhibition of Nuclear Factor-кB can be a therapeutic mode against viral infections.

Vitamin C is well known to protective benefit in infectious disease. Supplementation is known to support respiratory defense mechanisms, preventing viral infections, reducing their duration and severity as well as having anti-fungal properties that can improve flu-like symptoms. Patients with acute respiratory infections such as, tuberculosis, pneumonia have decreased plasma vitamin C concentrations. Vitamin C administration reduces the severity and duration of pneumonia in aged patients. This key protective action against infections makes them a target of interests in COVID-19.

For the Treatment and Prevention of viral respiratory tract infections, it is suggested to take 4-6 grams of Vitamin C per day. To those who think that they can get Vitamin C from citrus fruits, they have to understand that they need to consume as many as 20 oranges to get 1g of Vitamin C which is impossible.

Vitamin C levels in white blood cells are ten times higher than in plasma, which shows functional role of the vitamin in these immune cells. Vitamin C has been shown to affect the production of interferon, the functions of phagocytes, maturation of T-lymphocytes and replication of viruses. Vitamin C also protects these blood cells from oxidative damage when they try to clear out viruses, bacteria etc. Many clinical studies have shown that Vitamin C has a positive impact on many infections caused by fungi, viruses, bacteria etc.

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble steroid hormone precursor. That will be arises from ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation exposure of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) in the epidermis of the skin. Vitamin D has main role in a wide range of body systems, including in both adaptive and innate immune responses. Vitamin D improves innate cellular immunity through stimulation of expression of anti-microbial peptides, such as cathelicidin and defensins. Defensins maintain gap and tight and junctions, enhance the expression of anti-oxidative genes. Viruses such as influenza damage the integrity of epithelial tight junctions increasing the risk of pulmonary oedema and infection. Vitamin D is known to schedule the integrity of these junctions with low levels of vitamin D receptor expression leading to increased expression of claudin-2 and inflammation. Vitamin D also promotes the differentiation of monocytes to macrophages whilst increasing bacterial destruction, superoxide production and phagocytosis.

Vitamin D supplements are known to reducing the incidence and severity of viral infection. There is an opposite relationship between upper respiratory tract infection and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. The effects of vitamin D supplementation during covid – 19 infections remain controversial. After, clinical trial it is define better cut offs for vitamin D levels and, finally decide, that dosage is the best. Many human clinical trials have been registered to decide the effect of vitamin D supplementation in COVID-19 patients.


Zinc is involved in many biological processes including immunity. It is vital in both the acquired and innate responses to viral infection. Zinc deficiency significantly increases remodeling of lung tissue and pro-inflammatory cytokines is noted, an effect which was partially countered by zinc supplements.

Due to the anti-viral and immunomodulatory properties of zinc, it has been used in COVID-19 patients. Studied clinical trial of zinc on covid-19 patients have shown that zinc supplementation is able to decrease COVID-19 related symptoms such as lower respiratory tract infection. These effects have been suggested to be due to inhibition of viral replication, uncoating and binding, and may be relevant to COVID-19. A clinical trial registered in Australia will decide the use of intravenous zinc administration COVID-19 positive individuals.

Zinc plays a main role in the recruitment of chemotactic activity and neutrophil granulocytes and. Zinc has positive effects on generation of oxidative burst, NK cells, CD4+ and CD8 + T cells phagocytosis. Zinc has been shown to inhibit the replication, transcription complex and synthesis of corona viruses. It can also interfere directly with therapeutic effects, viral replication, protein synthesis and providing beneficial against viral infections.

ALA(alpha-linolenic acid)

Alpha-linolenic acid is an omega-3 fatty acid. It is called “essential” because it is needed for normal human development and growth. It is also found in soybean oil, vegetable oils, canola (rapeseed) oil, in dairy products and red meat, walnuts and other nuts.

ALA(Alpha-lipoic acid) is used in patients with diabetes to treat peripheral neuropathy. We think ALA will have a securely effect against COVID-19 in patients with diabetes by various mechanisms. We will describe the securely effects of ALA against COVID-19 infection in patients with diabetes.

ALA is mainly used in the treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy. It can lowers blood glucose and increases insulin sensitivity. ALA is a potent antioxidant. ALA inhibits activation and reduces oxidative stress of nuclear factor-kappa B. ALA has antiviral effects against some viruses. ALA show antiviral effect by reducing NF-kB activation. ALA increases strengthens and the intracellular glutathione level against the corona virus 229E strain, and inhibits HIV-1 replication. Also, it has been reported that ALA decreases the growth of the vaccinia virus in vitro environment with similar mechanisms, and thus it can be protective against poxviruses. ALA has positive effects such as chelation of metal ions such as cadmium, mercury and lead, redistribution of redox-active divalent metal ions such as copper, and zinc, exogenous antioxidants such as vitamins C and E, and restoration of endogenous. ALA can provide an start up defensive mechanism against COVID-19. The combination of insulin and ALA may be an excellent selection for patients with diabetes.